Impact of Aerosols on Winter Fog of Pakistan

Yasmeen Z, G Rasul, M Zahid


Fogis boundary layer phenomenawhose formation is usuallyinfluenced by surface conditions. Fog is considered as serious hazardinPunjab andSindh particularly duringwinter. Winter inPakistanbecame short and intenseunder the changing climate. The increasingtrend offogfrequencies inthe last decaderesult invarious kind ofimpacts on humanlife, irrigationnetwork andeconomy ofthe country.The frequency ofdense, Moderate andShallow foggy days has been calculatedfocusingPunjab and Sindhfrom 2000-2010. The aim ofthisstudyis toidentify the fog frequency,its densityinthe fogprone regions (Punjaband Sindh)ofPakistan androleof aerosolsin fog formation. The maximumfrequency of dense fog hasbeenobservedin Sialkot,Lahore, Bahawalnagar, Faisalabad andits
adjoining areas whilemaximum frequency of Moderate/Shallowfoghasbeenseenin Multan &Sukkur. The decadal
analysis ofsurface visibility from2001-2010 depicts fall invisibility up to200m and onsome occasionsit reduces even up to50m during dense fog period in upper Punjab. The average dry bulb temperature and relative humidity analysis reveals the factthat decrease in temperature and increase in relative humidity results inincreasing frequency offoggy days inPunjab. Calm windis observed duringfoggyconditions inPunjab. The ten years aerosol analyses indicate thatsignificantly higher concentration ofaerosols andrise in dense foggy days was observedin
the eastern parts(Punjab)ofPakistan during the period2008-2010. There are two major types ofaerosolsin Pakistani.e. Dustblowing andBiomass burning. These trans-boundary aerosolsenhanced the fog inPunjab and
upper Sindh. Their impacts are notonlythreatening the environment butalsofor the human health andother living organismsin Pakistan.

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