Impact of Aerosols on Winter Fog of Pakistan

Yasmeen Z, G Rasul, M Zahid

Abstract


Fogis boundary layer phenomenawhose formation is usuallyinfluenced by surface conditions. Fog is considered as serious hazardinPunjab andSindh particularly duringwinter. Winter inPakistanbecame short and intenseunder the changing climate. The increasingtrend offogfrequencies inthe last decaderesult invarious kind ofimpacts on humanlife, irrigationnetwork andeconomy ofthe country.The frequency ofdense, Moderate andShallow foggy days has been calculatedfocusingPunjab and Sindhfrom 2000-2010. The aim ofthisstudyis toidentify the fog frequency,its densityinthe fogprone regions (Punjaband Sindh)ofPakistan androleof aerosolsin fog formation. The maximumfrequency of dense fog hasbeenobservedin Sialkot,Lahore, Bahawalnagar, Faisalabad andits
adjoining areas whilemaximum frequency of Moderate/Shallowfoghasbeenseenin Multan &Sukkur. The decadal
analysis ofsurface visibility from2001-2010 depicts fall invisibility up to200m and onsome occasionsit reduces even up to50m during dense fog period in upper Punjab. The average dry bulb temperature and relative humidity analysis reveals the factthat decrease in temperature and increase in relative humidity results inincreasing frequency offoggy days inPunjab. Calm windis observed duringfoggyconditions inPunjab. The ten years aerosol analyses indicate thatsignificantly higher concentration ofaerosols andrise in dense foggy days was observedin
the eastern parts(Punjab)ofPakistan during the period2008-2010. There are two major types ofaerosolsin Pakistani.e. Dustblowing andBiomass burning. These trans-boundary aerosolsenhanced the fog inPunjab and
upper Sindh. Their impacts are notonlythreatening the environment butalsofor the human health andother living organismsin Pakistan.


Full Text:

Untitled

References


Abish, B. and K. Mohan Kumar, 2011:Role of fine mode aerosols in modulating cloud properties over industrial locations in north India, Annales. Geophysicae, 29, 1605–1612, 2011.

Alam, K., T., Trauntmann and T. Blaschke, 2011:Aerosols Optical properties and Radiative forcing over mega-city Karachi, Journal Atmospheric research101,773-782.

Arun K. S., Z.K., Bora, J., Das, V., Rawat, K., Sharma, S. K. Jain,2010: Winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains mappingand modeling usingremote sensing and GIS, Springer science (Natural

Hazards), DOI 10.1007/sl 1069-010-9660-0.

Brooks, S. D., M., Gonzales and R. Farias, 2009: Using surface tension measurements to understand how pollutioncan influence cloud formation, fog, and precipitation. Journal of Chemical Education 86(7), 838-841.

Bushahab, A., A. A., Suwaidi, H., Ghedira and K. Mubarak, 2009:Fog Forecasting, Detection and Monitoring in the UAE Using SEVIRI-MSG Data, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium,535-538

Dejmal Karel and V. Rapel, 2010:Implementation of methods for theradiation fog Prediction, International Journal of Energyand Environment, 3(4), 79-87.

Dey, S., S.N., Tripathi and R. P. Singh, 2004: Influence of dust stormson the Aerosols opticalproperties over the Indo-Gangetic basin, Journal of Geophsical Research, Vol 109, D20211.

Dimri, A.P, 2007:The transport of momentum, sensible heat, potential energyand moisture over thewestern Himalayas during the winter season, Theoretical and Applied Climatology,90(1-2) 49-63.

Eck, T. F., B. N., Holben, J. S., Reid, O., Doubovik,A., Smirnov, N. T., O' Neill, Slutsker, S. Kinne, 1999:Wavelength Dependence of he Optical depth ofbiomass burning, urban and desert dust aerosols, Journal of Geophysical Research, 4, 31,333-31,349.

Gautam, R., N. C., Hsu, M., Kafatos, and S. Tsay, 2007: Influences of winter haze on fog/low cloud over the Indo-Gangetic plains, Journal ofGeophysical Research, 112(2007).


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.