Regional Precipitation Response to Regional Warming in Past and Future Climate

B. Ahmad,, S. Haider, S. A. A Bukhari

Abstract


Pakistan is subtropical country with substantial exposure to solar energy. To study various aspects of renewal solar energy and especially its spatial distribution over the diversified national territories is highly pertinent where our economy is already shaken by heavy oil imports. The surface geographical parameterization of solar radiation has been given least attention so far in Pakistan. In this paper, we have examined the spatial distribution of extraterrestrial solar radiations (ESR) in the months of March and September on experimental basis. The landform detail has been achieved from digital elevation model (DEM) and simulation of ESR has been done with the help of ArcGIS. The simulation of ESR in the months of March and September shows phenomenal variation, the landforms and latitudinal impact are the dominant controlling factors. The zonal distribution in Indus plains and landform induced pattern in mountains are obvious. The mountains, enclosed valleys, piedmonts and plains depict distinct variation of ESR. The Himalayas, Karakoram and Hindukush (HKH) mountains have more intershielding impact than any other part of the country. The experiment shows reasonable output. Referred to the situation in March, in northern rugged parts of the country, the amount of ESR varies between 788-1117 and 0-788 units on the southern and northern slopes respectively. The central rugged parts including Sulaiman lobe region receive ESR from 893 to 973 units while most of the plains and wide valleys are characterized by the range of 916-990 units. In southern parts especially the Makran Division lies in range of 999 to 1179 units. The Kirthar and central Brahui ranges have patches of ESR with units from 670-809, while most of the piedmonts in Balochistan reflects ESR between 916-899 units. Referred to the results in September, in northern parts, the southern slopes with maximum exposure to the sun receive wide range of ESR that varies from 894-1117 units. The slopes which are deeply influenced by the shadow impact come under the class of 0-661 units. In central zone, the dominant class of ESR is between 973-1030 units. The Sulaiman ranges, Toba Kakar ranges, the central Brahui ranges, Zarghoon, Takatoo and Murdar Ghar induce impact on the spatial distribution of ESR and estimated amount of ESR depicts 662-788 units. In southern zone, two dominant classes have been observed, first, the plains show 1031-1117 units and second the mountains have 662973 units of ESR. However, in this zone the piedmonts obviously show patches of about 789- 894 units.

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References


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